Common causes of abnormal periods & irregular menstruation

For each person, there is a different “normal” period. Every month, one person may have a brief, light flow, while another may have more severe cramps and bleeding. If, on the other hand, your periods have become noticeably more intense, irregular, or otherwise abnormal, there may be a more serious issue at hand. The menstrual cycle is a vital thread that weaves life into the tapestry of women’s health. But when this organic rhythm breaks and becomes unpredictable, it may stimulate a wide range of feelings and pose significant queries regarding well-being. We set out to simplify the complexities surrounding irregular menstrual cycles through this blog. Recognizing the importance of this aspect of women’s health, let’s take an informative look at irregular periods, from illuminating possible causes to providing advice on getting help.
What are Abnormal periods?
What are the causes of irregular menstruation?
How are irregular periods diagnosed?
How are abnormal periods treated?
How can I reduce my chance of experiencing irregular menstruation?
FAQ’s about causes of abnormal periods

What are Abnormal periods?

Abnormal periods, commonly referred to as irregular menstrual cycles or menstrual irregularities, are variations in a woman’s regular menstrual pattern. Every 21 to 35 days is when a normal menstrual cycle typically begins, and bleeding lasts for two to seven days. But what is considered “normal” might differ from person to person.
Atypical times can appear in a variety of ways, such as:
Irregular cycle: Menstrual cycles that are regularly shorter or longer than the normal 21–35 days are referred to as irregular cycles.

Heavy or Prolonged Menstrual Bleeding: Prolonged or heavy menstrual bleeding, which frequently necessitates changing tampons or pads, or periods that extend beyond a week.

Light or Infrequent Menstrual Bleeding: Extremely light periods or infrequent menstrual cycles.

Absent Menstruation (Amenorrhoea): Missing periods for several consecutive months, which may be indicative of underlying health issues.

Painful Periods (Dysmenorrhea): Extreme cramping during the menstrual cycle that makes daily tasks difficult.
The 8 types of abnormal menstruation are as follows: Amenorrhea, Oligomenorrhea, Metrorrhagia, Dysmenorrhea, Menorrhagia, Hypomenorrhea, Polymenorrhea, and Menstrual Disorder during adolescence.
Hormonal imbalances, stress, weight fluctuations, medical conditions like polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), thyroid issues, uterine abnormalities, and more can all cause irregular periods. Periodic irregularities are normal, but prolonged or notable changes in menstrual patterns may require medical attention. It is best to speak with a healthcare provider for a complete assessment and suitable advice if you are having irregular periods or have worries about your menstrual health.
Understand about Polycystic ovary syndrome, What is Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS)? How to detect PCOS?

What are the causes of irregular menstruation?

Many factors can lead to irregular menstruation, and each person may have a different cause. Some common causes of irregular menstruation are:
Hormonal Imbalances: Fluctuations in estrogen and progesterone levels, Influenced by stress, weight changes, or hormonal disorders.

Thyroid Disorders: Affects menstrual cycle and hormonal balance.

Ovarian or uterine problems: These can lead to irregular menstruation.

Pelvic Inflammatory Disease (PID): Irregular menstrual cycles and inflammation can result from infections affecting the reproductive organs.

Medical Conditions: Hormonal balance can be impacted by long-term illnesses like diabetes or autoimmune diseases.

Stress: The hypothalamus, which controls hormone regulation, may be impacted by mental or physical stress.

Extreme Weight Changes: Hormonal balance can be upset by significant weight gain or loss.

Nursing and Pregnancy: During pregnancy and breastfeeding, there is a common change in menstrual patterns.

Polycystic Ovary Syndrome (PCOS): Hormonal imbalances that result in ovarian cysts.

Perimenopause: Hormonal fluctuations occur during this transitional period preceding menopause.

Medication: Some medications may affect the regularity of menstruation.

Excessive Exercise: Impacts hormonal levels and results in abnormal menstruation.

Eating Disorders: Disorders that affect hormone production include bulimia and anorexia nervosa.

Menstrual Suppression: Alterations in menstrual patterns may result from using certain birth control methods.

How are irregular periods diagnosed?

Menstrual irregularities, commonly referred to as irregular periods, can result from a number of different causes. For an accurate diagnosis, it’s crucial to speak with a healthcare provider if you’re having irregular periods. The following standard procedures could be used to diagnose irregular periods:
  • Medical History: The medical professional will begin by obtaining details regarding your menstrual history, such as the regularity, length, and pattern of your periods.

  • Physical Exam: To look for any indications of underlying medical conditions, such as abnormalities in the thyroid or polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), a physical examination may be performed.

  • Blood Tests: Blood tests can be used to measure hormone levels and identify any imbalances. Measuring hormone levels (e.g., estrogen, progesterone, thyroid).

  • Ultrasound: The reproductive organs can be seen with pelvic ultrasonography, which can also be used to detect any structural anomalies like fibroids, polyps, or ovarian cysts.

  • Pelvic Exam: To look for any anomalies in the reproductive organs, such as cysts, tumors, or infections, a pelvic exam may be performed.

  • Pap Smear: Your doctor might advise a Pap smear if you haven’t had one recently in order to check for cervical cancer and identify any abnormalities in the cervix.

  • Examining aspects like stress, weight, food, and exercise as part of a lifestyle assessment.

  • Thyroid Function Tests: Your doctor may prescribe thyroid function tests to evaluate the condition of your thyroid gland because thyroid dysfunction can impact the menstrual cycle.
Learn about how to get pregnent with PCOS, How to get pregnant with irregular periods and PCOS?

How are abnormal periods treated?

  • Hormonal Treatment for Disorders of the Menstrual Cycle
  • Birth control pills: By maintaining hormonal balance, they control menstrual cycles.
  • Hormone Replacement Therapy (HRT): Treat menopausal women’s hormonal imbalances.
  • Progesterone therapy: balance hormones and control menstruation.
  • Modifications to Lifestyle
  • Exercise and diet: These factors support regular menstrual cycles.
  • Weight Management: Essential for conditions like PCOS.
  • Surgery: Treat conditions like endometriosis or ovarian cysts with laparoscopic surgery.
  • Medication for the Thyroid
  • Prescription for thyroid dysfunction-related irregular periods.
  • PCOS treatment: control weight, hormone imbalances, and insulin resistance.

How can I reduce my chance of experiencing irregular menstruation?

Comprehensive Approach to Reducing Irregular Menstruation
  • Maintaining a balanced diet and regular exercise.
  • Prioritizing nutritious foods rich in vitamins and minerals.
  • Avoid excessive caffeine, alcohol, and processed foods.
  • Engaging in regular physical activity to regulate hormonal fluctuations.
  • Managing stress through meditation and adequate sleep.
  • Staying hydrated, avoiding smoking, and attending regular health check-ups.
  • Consult with a healthcare provider about suitable hormonal contraceptives for those not planning to conceive.
These lifestyle choices promote hormonal balance and reduce the risk of irregular menstruation. It’s crucial to remember that each person is unique, as are their health issues, so what works for one person might not be appropriate for another. It is best to speak with a healthcare provider if you are worried about irregular menstruation or changes in your menstrual cycle so they can provide you with individualized advice and direction based on your unique circumstances.

FAQ’s about causes of abnormal periods

What are the common symptoms of hormone imbalances that lead to irregular periods?
Mood swings, variations in flow intensity, irregular menstrual cycles, and physical symptoms like acne or hair growth are all indicators of hormonal imbalances. Hormonal irregularities are frequently caused by conditions such as PCOS and thyroid disorders.
What effects does advancing age have on menstrual cycles?
Age-related changes, such as adolescence, perimenopause, and menopause, involve hormonal fluctuations that can affect menstrual regularity. Women can better manage menstrual fluctuations and transition between life stages by being aware of these changes.
When should someone seek medical advice for abnormal periods?
Menstrual pattern changes that are severe or persistent, especially when they are accompanied by pain, should be taken seriously and should see a healthcare provider. For better menstrual health, prompt evaluation can aid in determining the root causes and guide effective management techniques.
If I have irregular periods, should I be concerned?
There may be no need to worry about irregular periods as some fluctuation in menstruation is common. Menstrual cycle irregularities can be normal on occasion, but persistent or notable changes may need medical attention, as some symptoms might indicate a more serious issue.
How much of a period delay is normal?
Menstrual cycle delays of up to seven days are usually accepted as normal. However, irregular variations may be brought on by variables like stress, weight fluctuations, and hormonal changes. For additional assessment, it’s best to speak with a healthcare provider if abnormalities continue or become a recurrent problem.


In conclusion, the complex interplay of hormonal, lifestyle, and physiological variables in a woman’s body is reflected in the wide range and complexity of causes of irregular periods. Several factors, including stress, age-related changes, hormonal imbalances, disorders of the reproductive system, and outside influences like medications, can cause irregularities in the menstrual cycle. Women must acknowledge and comprehend these prevalent causes in order to effectively advocate for their reproductive health. It gives people the confidence to ask for prompt medical advice, make healthy lifestyle decisions, and deal with the underlying problems that cause irregular menstruation. By raising awareness and educating people about these common causes, we help women at every stage of their reproductive journey to live better lives and experience better menstrual health.
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